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Cara Hijau Mengatasi Hama Dapur

September 26, 2012 by murtiyarini

Anda mungkin akan langsung mengangkat raket elektrik atau mengambil penyemprot serangga begitu melihat seekor kecoa melintas. Tak hanya kecoa, lalat, tikus dan semut memang sedari dulu menjadi ”musuh-musuh” di dapur kita.  Apalagi jika si kecil sering ikut bermain di dapur. Dapur sebagai tempat dengan aktivitas paling tinggi dan lembab menjadi tempat paling sesuai bagi serangga, tikus dan cicak.
            Berbagai merk dan jenis pembasmi serangga dan tikus tersedia di pasaran. Tapi jika  anda ingin cara yang lebih ’hijau’ dan aman untuk anak-anak,  kata kuncinya adalah  ”pengendalian”.
Kecoa
            Kecoa dapat hidup tanpa makanan hingga 40 hari, tapi hanya bertahan seminggu tanpa air. Karena inilah kecoa menyukai di tempat lembab yaitu di sekitar kamar mandi dan WC. Meskipun bisa terbang, tapi kecoa lebih suka berjalan di lantai atau dinding bagian bawah agar mudah menemukan air.
            Tempat tinggalnya yang kotor menjadikan serangga ini sangat menjijikan. Anda tentu jijik membayangkan kalau tungkai-tungkai penuh kuman ini berjalan-jalan di atas makanan. Kecoa lebih suka mencari makan pada malam hari (nokturnal), karena itu jarang terlihat pada siang hari.  Makanan kecoa beragam, mulai dari sampah, lem, kertas, sabun, semir dan tinta.
            Tubuh kecoa pipih,  mudah memasuki celah sempit. Cara ini cukup efektif untuk menghindari pukulan sapu lidi kita. Cara lain untuk mempertahankan diri adalah dengan mengeluarkan cairan bau dari dalam tubuhnya sehingga kadang kita memilih menjauh daripada harus mengejarnya.
            Kecoa menularkan bibit penyakit berasal  tempat-tempat kotor yang menempel pada tungkainya. Pada anak yang sensitif, kecoa dapat menjadi pencetus alergi dan asma.  Zat penyebab alergi berasal dari sekresi, eksresi, bangkai dan serpihan-serpihan tubuhnya. Di Amerika, 1 dari 4 orang sensitif pada kecoa.
Trik sehat :
·     Tutup makanan dan bahan makanan di dapur.
·     Atur sirkulasi udara dan cahaya agar dapur dan kamar mandi tidak terlalu lembab.
·     Rutin membersihkan dapur dan kamar mandi
·     Menutup celah-celah di dinding
Lalat
            Lalat  terbang cepat dan cekatan. Tingkahnya seperti pencuri yang mencicipi semua makanan, tapi sulit untuk ditangkap . Tubuhnya dikelilingi bulu-bulu halus yang peka terhadap desiran angin gerakan tangan kita.
            Lalat yang umum di dalam rumah adalah lalat rumah, lalat hijau dan lalat buah. Lalat rumah yang berwarna hitam. Lalat menyukai aroma makanan yang menyengat, seperti buah-buahan yang matang dan makanan yang mulai membusuk. Karena itu, lalat suka hinggap di tempat sampah. Tungkainya dapat membawa kuman penyakit.  Lalat biasanya terbang rendah dan dekat. Suka hinggap di lantai dan dinding yang rendah.
            Lalat daging berwarna hijau. Suka makan dan bertelur pada daging.  Dalam 2-3 hari, pada sampah daging atau plastik bekas pembungkus daging yang tidak dibuang akan muncul larva lalat (belatung) dan akan menjadi lalat dewasa.
            Jenis lalat yang lain adalah lalat buah.  Ukurannya lebih kecil. Lalat buah mengerumuni buah yang telah matang dan bertelur disana. Tempayak (larva) yang menetas akan memakan bagian dalam buah.  Dengan hinggap dari tempat sampah lalu berpindah ke makanan kita, lalat dapat membawa penyakit diare, typus, disentri, kolera penyakit kulit, E. coli, leprosy, dan polio
Trik sehat :
·         Segera buang sampah terutama jika terdapat makanan yang membusuk. Bersihkan tempat sampah dari sisa sampah yang masih menempel
·         Simpan buah-buahan dalam kulkas atau lemari sehingga tidak tercium baunya. Dengan memutus daur hidup lalat berarti akan mengurangi populasi lalat di dapur.
·         Tutup makanan dan minuman di dapur.
·         Pasang tirai/ kaca pada jendela untuk menghindari masuknya lalat dari luar.
·         Pasang sedotan warna orange yang telah diberi lem dalam gelas dengan posisi tegak. Lalat akan tertarik dan melekat disana.
Semut
            Semut menyukai makanan yang manis. Mereka mudah sekali menemukan makanan manis melalui penciumannya. Dalam beberapa menit, remah makanan yang berserak di lantai  akan segera dikerubuti semut. Semut tinggal dan membentuk terowongan di dalam tembok atau tanah. Seringkali terjadi migrasi besar-besaran menjelang musim hujan.
            Semut sebenarnya tidak menyebarkan penyakit, namun cukup menganggu apabila anak-anak anda bermain di lantai. Gigitan semut dapat menimbulkan rasa gatal yang cukup lama. Semut yang  mengerubuti makanan mengubah makanan menjadi serbuk dalam ukuran partikel kecil sehingga tidak layak untuk dimakan.
Trik sehat :
·         Letakkan mangkuk berisi air pada kaki meja makan untuk menghalangi semut. Air sebaiknya diganti setiap 2 hari agar tidak menjadi tempat berkembangbiaknya namuk.
·         Sapu lantai secara rutin pagi dan sore, atau sesaat setelah si kecil menumpahkan remah-remah biskuitnya.
·         Pel lantai untuk membersihkan sisa makanan dan minuman yang lengket.
Tikus
            Seperti tokoh Jerry dalam kartun “Tom and Jerry”,  tikus memiliki banyak keahlian.Tikus dapat memanjat tembok vertikal dan mengerutkan badan untuk melalui lubang yang lebih kecil dari tubuhnya. Indra penglihatan dan penciuman mereka sangat baik dan berlari cepat untuk menghindari kejaran kucing. Tikus dapat berenang hingga 72 jam, sehingga tidak efektif menjebak tikus dalam air. Tikus selalu menandai lintasannya dengan kencing dan akan selalu melewati rute yang sama.
            Kesalnya, tikus yang giginya terus tumbuh ini gemar sekali menggigit benda-benda di rumah kita seperti kabel, perabot plastik, lemari kayu bahkan kursi besi sekalipun. Bukan hanya untuk dimakan, tapi juga untuk mengasah giginya yang terus memanjang.
            Seekor  tikus dapat melahirkan anak hingga 12 ekor  tiap 3 minggu. Bayangkan dalam  setahun terlahir 150 bayi tikus!
           Tikus sangat berbahaya bagi kesehatan karena menyebarkan berbagai penyakit diantaranya pes,  salmonellosis,  leptospirosis, meningitis oleh  virus lymphocytic coriomengitis, demam lassa, rabies, trikhinosis dan hantavirus (penyebab sakit paru dan gijal). Penyakit ditularkan  melalui kontak langsung dengan urin tikus, ludah dan kotorannya.  Selain itu tikus terus menumpulkan giginya akan merusak perabot rumah dengan gigitannya. Tikus juga sangat pandai mencuri makanan terutama yang beraroma gurih seperti keju dan ikan.
Trik sehat :
·     Memelihara kucing, paling tidak untuk menakuti-nakuti
·     Pasang perangkap tikus ditempat tidak terjangkau anak-anak.
·     Memasang umpan beracun dikuatirkan akan meracuni hewan peliharaan. Selain itu tikus akan mati disembarang tempat yang tidak diketahui bangkainya, namun baunya menyebar kemana-mana.
·     Tutup makanan atau simpan di lemari.
·     Gudang atau tumpukan kardus harus sering diperiksa sehingga tidak dijadikan sarang tikus
·     Ubah posisi interior rumah 2-3 bulan sekali agar  tikus kehilangan orientasi kawasan.
·     Sering mengepel lantai untuk menghapus jejak tikus
·     Buang sampah secara cepat agar tidak jadi makanan tikus.
·     Kurangi rumput dan rimbunan semak di halaman sekitar rumah agar tidak menjadi sarang tikus.
·     Di beberapa toko telah dijual alat penghasil suara ultrasonik dan  gelombang elektromagnetik yang dapat mengusir  tikus.
Cicak
            Cicak tinggal dibalik lemari, di celah atap rumah. Cicak mempunyai bantalan pada kakinya yang memungkinkan mereka menempel di dinding. Kehadiran cicak sebenarnya membantu untuk mengurangi jumlah nyamuk di dalam rumah. Tetapi dalam beberapa hal cicak sangat menganggu.
            Mungkin anda pernah kejatuhan kotoran cicak dari langit-langit rumah, atau  mengenai perabot rumah atau makanan.   Cicak yang sedang gugup sering terpeleset dan terjebak dalam toples gula yang tidak ditutup, blender,  atau kecebur ke dalam gelas.  Cicak dalam keadaan terdesak memutuskan ekornya. Mungkin diantara anda pernah menemukan ekor cicak dalam masakan. Mereka juga suka menyelinap masuk ke dalam lemari baju dan lemari makan
Trik sehat :
·         Tutup gelas, blender, toples, panci dan piring makanan.
·         Sering-sering membersihkan lemari dan perabot rumah lainnya.
·         Tutup celah yang mungkin terdapat di dinding atau lemari.

 



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