Resensi buku : Energi dalam Perencanaan Pembangunan

Resensi ini dimuat di rubrik perada Koran Jakarta

Judul Buku : Energi dalam Perencanaan Pembangunan
Penulis : Hanan Nugroho
Penerbit : IPB Press
Cetakan : Pertama, Juni 2012
Tebal : 352 halaman ISBN : 978-979-493-417-3
Harga : Rp.69.000,-

Pemerintah dan masyarakat harus selalu memikirkan energi yang semakin kritis. Sebagai sumber daya kehidupan dan mesin penggerak ekonomi, energi yang tersedia tidak sepadan dengan jumlah penduduk Indonesia yang begitu besar, meski sesungguhnya kekayaan sumber energi melimpah. Indonesia yang luas sering menjadi kendala pemerataan energi. Di sisi lain, ekonomi yang masih terus tumbuh membutuhkan lebih banyak energi.

Buku ini mencoba menggambarkan kompleksitas persoalan energi yang dihadapi Indonesia. Bahasan meliputi persoalan minyak bumi, gas, batu bara, energi perdesaan, konversi energi, regulasi industri energi, energi dan lingkungan, energi internasional,alternatif dan solusi.

Upaya menginformasikan kepada masyarakat dikemukakan lewat judul “Apakah yang menjadi persoalan pada subsidi BBM?” Warga perlu memperoleh hitung-hitungan dampak bila ada kenaikan harga bahan bakar minyak (BBM) atau penurunan terutama terkait besaran subsidi.

Saat ini, subsidi BBM telah berkembang melampaui kemampuan dan pendapatan ekspor minyak bumi. Untuk mengantisipasi gejolak harga minyak, pemerintah harus segera banting setir kediversifikasi dengan menggunakan energi nonminyak bumi. Karena pusat konsumsi energi paling banyak di pulau Jawa, sementara sumber energi berada di pulai lain, pembangunan infrastruktur energi harus segera diselesaikan. Tinjauan terhadap masalah subsidi BBM, kebergantungan pada minyak bumi, manajemen energi nasional-pembangunan infrastruktur, kritik terhadap subsidi BBM, solusi keluar dari subsidi BBM, dan manajemen energi nasional yang seharusnya dijalankan, dibahas pada bab 2 (halaman 13-60).

Energi kedua yang digunakan Indonesia adalah gas. Pada awal 1990-an, konsumsi gas bumi di Jawa masih kecil yang terpusat di Jawa Barat. Kebutuhan gas meningkat setelah konversi minyak tanah ke gas Elpiji. Pasar gas Indonesia sekarang didominasi PT Pertamina. UU Migas 22 Tahun 2001 dan kebijakan pemerintah untuk meningkatkan konsumsi gas masyarakat pada 2007 berpotensi mengubah struktur pasar dan pemain dalam industri gas.

Upaya pemerintah ini diharapkan mendorong munculnya badan usaha baru dan menciptakan persaingan yang lebih baik. Pada Bab 3 (halaman 63-142) digambarkan mengenai pengembangan industri hilir gas bumi Indonesia. Ini meliputi rantai industri, struktur, infrastruktur, pelaku industri hilir, model pengembangan industri hilir, serta pengembangan industri hilir beberapa negara maju sebagai pembanding.

Indonesia perlu melakukan gerakan konservasi energi agar tidak boros sebagaimana tertera dalam Instruksi Presiden No 10/2005 mengenai Penghematan Energi. Ini langkah untuk gerakan konservasi energi nasional dengan pilar utama membentuk Pusat Konservasi Energi Nasional dan menyiapkan undang-undang konservasi energi (halaman 181-208).

Perubahan iklim melanda global. Dalam UN Framework Convention on Climate Change tahun 1977 telah dihasilkan kesepakatan internasional untuk menata perubahan iklim global lewat Protokol Kyoto. Pada Bab 8 (halaman 243-268), dibahas konsekuensi Indonesia setelah meratifikasi Protokol Kyoto, terutama terkait penggunaan bahan bakar fosil (batu bara, minyak bumi, dan gas bumi) dan implikasi sektor energi.

Energi sering diasosiasikan dengan pemanfaatan teknologi. Tetapi, agar menarik, di sini sengaja dibahas lebih banyak sisi kebijakan dan perencanaan. Buku ini sarat materi, namun dikemas secara sistematis dan menggunakan bahasa populer sehingga mudah dicerna. Buku Energi dalam Perencanaan Pembangunan diharapkan merangsang generasi muda untuk mengeksplorasi permasalahan energi secara lebih lanjut.

Diresensi oleh Murtiyarini, Staf Kependidikan Institut Pertanian Bogor


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