JAMINAN SOSIAL UNTUK GURU SWASTA DAN HONORER

Oleh : Murtiyarini
Radar Bogor 23 November 2011 / Gagasan

Terdapat 4 macam jaminan yang ditentukan oleh Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial (BPJS) yaitu JAMSOSTEK (Jaminan Sosial Tenaga Kerja), TASPEN (Dana Tabungan dan Asuransi Pegawai Negeri), ASABRI (Asuransi Sosial Angkatan Bersenjata Republik Indonesia), dan ASKES (Asuransi Kesehatan Indonesia).

Berbeda dengan TASPEN, ASABRI dan ASKES yang diperuntukkan kepada Pegawai Negeri Sipil, JAMSOSTEK adalah program jaminan sosial berdasarkan funded social security, didanai oleh peserta dan terbatas pada para masyarakat pekerja di sektor formal yaitu karyawan-karyawan perusahaan swasta, namun tidak termasuk di dalamnya pekerja-pekerja sektor informal seperti wiraswasta dan industri rumah tangga. Dalam meningkatkan jumlah kepesertaannya, PT. JAMSOSTEK terus melakukan sosialisasi kepada perusahaan-perusahaan tentang beberapa undang-undang terkait tenaga kerja, misalnya UU jaminan sosial dan tenaga kerja, UU kesehatan, dan UU ketenagakerjaan serta mempromosikan program-programnya yaitu Jaminan Kecelakaan Kerja (JKK), Jaminan Kematian (JK), Jaminan Hari Tua (JHT), Jaminan Pemeliharaan Kesehatan (JPK), Pinjaman Uang Muka Perumahan (PUMP) dan program renovasi rumah. Sosialisasi ini penting mengingat masih rendahnya kesadaran masyarakat pekerja atas haknya sebagai peserta JAMSOSTEK.

Sebagai wujud peran serta dalam upaya pencerdasan bangsa, PT JAMSOSTEK (Persero) menyelenggarakan program Dana Peningkatan Kesejahteraan Peserta (DPKP) dalam bidang pendidikan. Konkretnya, DPKP ini berupa pemberian beasiswa prestasi bagi anak tenaga kerja peserta Jamsostek dalam jangka waktu 12 bulan, dengan rincian Tingkat SD -SLTP Rp 150.000,-/ bulan dan Tingkat SLTA – Perguruan tinggi sebesar Rp 200.000,-/ bulan. Akumulasi penyaluran dana beasiswa anak pekerja JAMSOSTEK dari tahun 2006 – 2010 telah mencapai Rp. 96,505 miliar kepada 132,825 anak di 121 Kantor Cabang JAMSOSTEK. Tahun 2011 ini PT JAMSOSTEK memecahkan rekor dunia dari Museum Rekor Indonesia dalam penyerahan beasiswa senilai Rp29,4 miliar bagi 12.250 pelajar dan mahasiswa anak dari peserta JAMSOSTEK.

Namun perlu diingat, masih ada pilar pendidikan yang belum menikmati jaminan sosial baik dari JAMSOSTEK maupun dari ketiga jaminan sosial lainnya, yaitu tenaga pendidik honorer dan tenaga pendidik swasta. Mereka tidak mendapatkan jaminan sosial karena tidak berstatus PNS dan tidak memiliki payung hukum yang jelas. Dalam Undang Undang (UU) nomor 14 tahun 2005 tentang Guru dan Dosen disebutkan tunjangan kemaslahatan pemerintah baru disediakan untuk guru-guru PNS.

Saat ini pemerintah mengeluarkan tunjangan fungsional untuk guru swasta Rp.250.000/bulan, namun jumlah tersebut dirasa masih terlalu kecil. Menurut data yang ada di Persatuan Guru Seluruh Indonesia (PGSI) saat ini jumlah tenaga pendidik swasta di Indonesia mencapai 700 ribu orang. Terjadinya penambahan guru ini cukup menggembirakan karena memperlancar proses belajar mengajar. Namun dikuatirkan jumlah yang besar ini ini akan berpengaruh pada program tunjangan guru swasta yang biasanya diberi pemerintah, dengan kata lain nilai tunjangan yang diterima guru berkurang dari biasanya karena jumlah pembaginya lebih besar. Oleh karena itu, apabila pemerintah belum menaikkan status mereka menjadi tenaga pendidik negara, selayaknya ada jaminan sosial bagi tenaga pendidik meliputi jaminan layanan kesehatan, jaminan kecelakaan kerja, jaminan kematian, dan jaminan hari tua.

Kondisi lebih parah dialami oleh guru di perbatasan dan daerah karena sulitnya mendapat tunjangan. Ada 400 guru Kabupaten Nunukan (Kalimantan) yang bertugas di perbatasan RI-Malaysia dan hanya 8 orang di antaranya yang mendapatkan tunjangan. Di Pulau Marore, perbatasan RI-Filipina para guru perlu lebih dari 2 tahun menunggu tunjangan seperti yang dijanjikan pemerintah pada tahun 2009 lalu. Sementara sejumlah guru yang mengajar di Senaning, perbatasan Indonesia – Malaysia di Kabupaten Sintang, Kalimantan Barat, sempat melakukan aksi mogok mengajar karena tertundanya pembayaran tunjangan guru perbatasan tahun 2011. Kasus-kasus tersebut di atas menjadi ironis dengan niat pemerintah untuk memperkuat pendidikan di daerah perbatasan.

Tak jauh beda nasibnya, guru honorer di Indonesia belum berkesempatan mendapatkan tunjangan ataupun jaminan sosial. Bahkan besaran gajinya sangat variatif di tiap daerah, bahkan antara yayasan berbeda di daerah yang sama. Tidak semua guru honorer beruntung mendapatkan gaji sama atau diatas standar upah minimum. Meskipun pada tahun 2010 telah dilakukan pengangkatan tenaga honorer menjadi CPNS dan penghentian rekruitmen tenaga honorer, namun kenyataannya masih banyak tenaga honorer yang tersisa. Tahun 2011 jumlah tenaga honorer di Indonesia adalah 67ribu, diantara adalah guru. Menurut data Persatuan Guru Republik Indonesia pada 2011 jumlah guru honorer yang akan dinaikkan statusnya menjadi PNS mencapai 160.000 orang. Kemudian, pada 2012 jumlah guru honorer yang akan mengikuti seleksi CPNS mencapai 720.000 orang. Tampaknya gelar pahlawan tanpa tanda jasa semakin lekat pada guru-guru honorer.

Dimana posisi JAMSOSTEK dalam hal ini ? Sebagai upaya mendukung kemajuan pendidikan nasional dan meningkatkan kecerdasan bangsa dengan memberikan dukungan langsung pada upaya peningkatan produktivitas dan peningkatan kesejahteraan bagi tenaga pendidik dan keluarganya diharapkan langkah ke depan PT JAMSOSTEK dapat meningkatkan kepesertaan dari tenaga-tenaga pendidik non PNS. Untuk itu PT JAMSOSTEK akan banyak memerlukan penyesuaian terkait status guru swasta dan honorer yang masih abu-abu dan terkait besaran gaji dan honor yang sangat variatif. PT. JAMSOSTEK harus gencar melakukan sosialisasi program-program jaminan ke yayasan-yayasan pendidikan swasta maupun sekolah negeri yang masih mempekerjakan guru honorer serta melakukan “negosiasi” dengan menggandeng Pemerintah maupun Yayasan untuk menentukan bentuk program yang sesuai untuk tenaga pendidik swasta dan honorer, khususnya guru.

Tulisan ini telah dimuat di Radar Bogor, 23 November 2011,
dan diikutkan dalam Lomba Karya Tulis Jurnalistik JAMSOSTEK 2011, serta memenangkan juara 2 kategori umum.


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