Mencari Cahaya Kunang-kunang


Oleh : Murtiyarini

Sulit bagi saya untuk bercerita kepada anak-anak tentang bagaimana bunyi jangkrik atau indahnya cahaya kunang-kunang di malam hari. Anak-anak saya melihat gambaran kedua serangga itu, dan keunikan serangga-serangga lainnya hanya dari buku. Pada akhir pekan, kerap saya bawa anak-anak ke tempat terbuka untuk melakukan eksplorasi serangga, dengan alat kamera digital dan buku gambar untuk merekam keindahannya. Lumayan, setidaknya kami masih menjumpai beberapa jenis kupu-kupu, barisan semut di ranting, seekor kepik di balik daun, dan lebah yang berputar-putar di kelopak bunga.
Jika ditanya tentang serangga, yang ada dibenak anak-anak sekarang mungkin adalah lalat, nyamuk, kecoa dan wereng. Serangga-serangga tersebut berkonotasi negatif, dikenal sebagai vektor penyakit dan hama tanaman. Padahal serangga adalah spesies paling banyak ragamnya di alam ini, dengan manfaat yang tak kalah besarnya.
Di dunia, dikenal lebih dari 900.000 jenis spesies serangga, menduduki 80% dari total spesies makhluk hidup di bumi ini. Jumlah tersebut masih ditambah dengan jenis spesies yang belum dinamai. Serangga juga menduduki biomasa terbesar dari dunia fauna (i).
Serangga penting untuk menyehatkan habitat tropis. Peran mereka sebagai pemecah unsur organik, membantu penyerbukan bunga sehingga tanaman dapat berbuah, dan sebagai salah satu mata dalam rantai makanan. Ketiadaan atau berkurangnya serangga di alam dapat mengganggu keseimbangan ekosistem.
Lalu kemana perginya serangga-serangga yang unik dan indah itu? Mengapa serangga kini seolah tak bersahabat dengan manusia? Benarkah mereka jahat kepada manusia? Ataukah manusia yang telah mengusik keseimbangan hidup mereka?Empat belas tahun silam, ketika saya belajar tentang Entomologi, ilmu yang mempelajari serangga, dunia belum begitu banyak membahas tentang perubahan iklim dan pemanasan global. Seiring dengan perubahan yang terjadi pada iklim dunia, makhluk kecil yang kerap diremehkan ini pun mengalami perubahan dalam pola kehidupannya.
Pengaruh perubahan iklim pada serangga
Banyak spesies serangga tropis, di antaranya kupu-kupu, sangat rentan pada perubahan suhu karena mereka terbiasa pada suhu yang konstan sepanjang tahun. Perubahan suhu 1-2 º C saja dapat mengganggu fungsi fisiologinya yang kemudian menyebabkan terganggunya kehidupan serangga, serta berujung pada kepunahan (ii). Serangga tropis, seperti halnya beruang kutub, bisa menjadi dua diantara spesies-spesies yang segera punah pada abad ini. Kehilangan yang lebih besar dan berkurangnya keanekaragaman serangga tercatat selama terjadinya pemasanan global (iii).Populasi musuh alami dan serangga inang mungkin merespon dengan berbeda perubahan suhu ini. Serangga yang berlaku sebagai musuh alami biasanya mempunyai sifat yang lebih rentan dan sulit beradaptasi, sedangkan serangga hama biasanya lebih tahan dan mudah beradaptasi (iv). Jumlah musuh alami akan turun, sebaliknya, peningkatan suhu bumi mendorong pertumbuhan serangga hama yang cepat dan tidak mengalami diapauses sehingga fase larva atau pupa lebih singkat sehingga menghindarkan dirinya dari predasi dari musuh alami yang umum menyerang pada kedua fase rawan tersebut. Pertumbuhan populasi serangga hama yang cepat menjadikan tingkat serangan lebih tinggi. Hal ini menjadi alasan mengapa akhir-akhir ini perubahan iklim berdampak pada ledakan hama, pada daerah tropis yang biasanya iklim cenderung konsisten (v)
Pemanasan global yang diiringi dengan peningkatan konsentrasi CO2 di atmosfer. Beberapa peneliti menemukan peningkatan CO2 berpotensi berpengaruh penting pada serangga terkait dengan komposisi nutrisi tanaman inang. Pada awal musim tanam, kedelai tumbuh dengan peningkatan CO2 atmosfer 57% akan menghasilkan buah yang lebih banyak kandungan gulanya, sehingga pola makan serangga berubah menjadi semakin banyak(iv). Selain itu, peningkatan CO2 pada tanaman menyebabkan rasio N lebih rendah, sehingga serangga perlu lebih banyak memakan tumbuhan untuk mencukupi kebutuhan akan Nitrogen. Akibatnya, kerusakan tanaman menjadi lebih banyak terjadi (vi).
Peningkatan suhu dapat menyebabkan penyebaran serangga secara horizontal dan vertikal, khususnya spesies yang mempunyai kisaran inang yang luas, misalnya serangga hama tanaman kehutanan (iii). Pemanasan global , yang biasanya diikuti dengan banjir dan kekeringan, berdampak pula pada penyebaran epidemik penyakit di area yang tidak diduga sebelumnya oleh ahli kesehatan dunia. Iklim juga mempengaruhi perubahan arah angin dan tentu saja berpengaruh pada perpindahan serangga. Jika seekor serangga adalah vektor penyakit, maka dia akan menularkan penyakit ke tempat baru. Nyamuk, lalat, dan serangga vektor penyakit lainnya bertahan selama musim dingin dan memperluas jangkauannya membawa sumber penyakit dalam tubuhnya. Malaria bergerak ke daerah tinggi untuk di Afrika and America latin. Kolera juga tumbuh di samudra yang panas. Demam berdarah dan penyakit Lyme bergerak ke arah utara. Hal ini diduga oleh para ilmuwan karena terjadinya resistensi antibiotik, kesalahan sistem kesehatan masyarakat, pergerakan populasi dan cuaca yang tidak menentu (vii).
Semua contoh diatas menggambarkan bagaimana serangga bereaksi terhadap perubahan iklim dan berpotensial mengembangkan adaptasi fisiologi dan tingkahlaku. Hal ini juga mengarah pada perubahan genetis dalam sebuah populasi.

Bersahabat dengan serangga

Dahulu kala, ketika semua berjalan demikian alami, keberadaan serangga adalah penyeimbang ekosistem. Ketika hutan banyak ditebang, dan kayunya digunakan untuk pemukiman manusia, kemanakah rayap-rayap hutan itu mencari makan? Ketika populasi kodok kehilangan rumahnya, berganti dengan pemukiman, maka populasi nyamuk semakin banyak. Ketika tumpukan sampah kian menggunung tanpa tahu akan diapakan lagi, maka jumlah lalat, nyamuk dan kecoa kian merisaukan. Ketika pertanaman sudah menjadi monokultur padi, serangga musuh alami kehilangan habitatnya, dan wereng yang semula bisa ditolerir populasinya, kini menjadi kian ganas menyerang padi. Ketika taman-taman berganti dengan mal dan pertokoan, maka kunang-kunang, kupu-kupu dan kepik yang cantik hanya ada dalam bentuk duplikatnya. Anak-anak kita sudah tidak lagi bisa melihat wujud aslinya.
Lalu bagaimana mengatasi hama-hama yang tak lagi bersahabat dengan kita? Haruskah kita keluarkan uang untuk membeli racun yang konon ampuh? Benarkah ampuh? Racun serangga tak hanya membunuh hama, melainkan juga membunuh serangga yang bermanfaat seperti lebah, kupu-kupu dan serangga yang berlaku sebagai musuh alami. Racun-racun itu hanya mengatasi masalah sementara, hanya membunuh sedikit serangga yang tampak oleh kita, namun tanpa kita sadari, serangga yang lolos dari maut akan membentuk gen kekebalan baru dan menurunkan pada generasi selannjutnya. Teknologi jalan pintas hanya akan berkejaran dengan adaptasi serangga hama. Masalah tidak akan pernah berujung.
Mengapa manusia tidak menurunkan kesombongan dan keserakahan? Memulai bersahabat dengan alam, dengan segenap isinya, merupakan cara bijak untuk mengembalikan keseimbangan alam. Pertanian dengan cara-cara alami, dapat mempertahankan ekosistem lahan sebelumnya. Setiap tindakan yang ramah alam akan membantu ekosistem dalam menjaga rantai-rantai dalam jejaring makanan. Menjaga habitat musuh alami sehingga populasinya cukup penting untuk meredam keganasan serangga hama. Dalam lingkungan domestik, dapat dilakukan pengurangan penggunaan racun serangga. Manajemen lingkungan yang sehat dan bersih adalah cara-cara ramah alam dalam mengatasi masalah hama pemukiman.
Ramah terhadap serangga bisa dimulai dari hal terkecil di lingkungan terdekat kita, antara lain sebagai berikut :

  1. Menjaga kebersihan rumah sehingga mengurangi populasi kecoa, lalat dan nyamuk. Kita tak perlu terburu-buru menyemprotkan racun serangga di sudut-sudut rumah kita. Racun serangga tak hanya akan mengotori udara, tetapi juga bisa membahayakan saluran pernapasan keluarga.
  2. Menghijaukan lingkungan rumah. Jika tidak ada lahan, bisa dimulai dari tanaman pot. Bayangkan, jika kita mempunyai bunga-bunga indah di pot, dan kupu-kupu berdatangan di pagi hari. Indah bukan?
  3. Memberikan pendidikan kepada anak-anak kita tentang manfaat serangga, serta menanamkan paham bahwa serangga lebih banyak mendatangkan manfaat apabila kita bersahabat dengan mereka.
  4. Segala tindakan “hijau” seperti mengurangi penggunaan aerosol, parfum, dan air conditioner, hemat bbm, hemat listrik, hemat air, mengurangi penebangan pohon, penghijauan, serta manajemen sampah dan banyak lagi, akan sangat berarti untuk pemulihan kondisi bumi, dan tentu saja akan berimbas positif pada konservasi serangga.

Perubahan sekecil apapun di bumi ini akan mencari keseimbangan. Satu spesies bertambah jumlahnya, sementara spesies lain terancam punah, tetapi lambat laun mereka menemukan keseimbangan ekosistem. Masalahnya, tidak ada yang dapat memastikan kapan keseimbangan itu terbentuk. Jika kerusakan terus terjadi, iklim terus berubah dan bumi terus memanas, ke arah mana kehidupan ini akan bermuara?
Tidak heran, jika saat ini malam-malam kita lebih banyak mendengar dengungan nyamuk daripada melihat cahaya kunang-kunang. Mari, kita jaga bumi ini, salah satunya, agar cahaya kunang-kunang kembali.

Referensi:

(i) http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/buginfo/bugnos.htm
(ii) Connor, Steve. 2008. Insects ‘Will Be Climate Change’s First Victims’. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/insects-will-be-climate-changes-first-victims-821616.html
(iii) Climate Change And Insect Distribution. http://www.biology-online.org/kb/article.php?p=forests-climate-change—lessons/climate-change-insect-distribution
(iv) Climate Change Effect on Insect and Pathogens. http://www.climateandfarming.org/pdfs/FactSheets/III.2Insect.Pathogens.pdf
(v) Hebden, Sophie . 2005. Climate Change Could Disrupt Natural Pest Control. http://www.scidev.net/en/news/climate-change-could-disrupt-natural-pest-control.html
(vi)Climate Change And Host-Insect Interactions. http://www.biology-online.org/articles/forests-climate-change—lessons/climate-change-host-insect-interactions.html
(vii)Climate Change Drives Disease To New Territory. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/05/04/AR2006050401931.html

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